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Krishna Kumar Singh, also known among friend circles KK and among close relative Krishna; Matriculation from Mithila High School Balour, Darbhanga in 1959, Graduated in Political Science Honours from C M College, Darbhanga, Bihar University in 1963; Joined post-graduate in Political Science the same year but dropped; joined Naxal movement under Charu Mazumdar, Kanu Sanyal, Satya Narayan Singh and Umadhar Singh in between but circumstances compelled to join literary work, clerk, proof readers etc in different publishing houses for livelihood; Finally joined journalism as career in different English newspapers and before my retirement from active journalism, I worked in The Times of India for about 19 years and retired as Chief Reporter  a few years back; continuing in journalism-reading more and more, writing more and more and praying to Almighty more and more-currently writing for different national English and Hindi dailies and magazines..

Thursday, 29 March 2012


Apart from some unfortunate incidents like demolition of Babari Masjid a few years back and killings of thousands of people of Muslims and Hindus in the wake of partition of the country as well as some serious Hindu-Muslim riots in independent India in past years and also before that some destruction of religious places by Muslim rulers in the medieval period, communal harmony has remained by and large an important factor in the country amid tremendous diversity in India! Only because of that, we are holding our country together in secularism and giving equal respect to all communities.
I must begin with a quote of the eminent scholar and former judge of the Supreme court Markandey Katju, before deliberating more facts on the secular fabric of India. Justice Katju has said, " Since there is so much diversity in India the only policy which will work is the policy of secularism and giving equal respect to all communities. Otherwise India will break up into a hundred pieces since there is so much diversity." Justice Katju has made this remark while delivering his speech to non-residents Indians in California in June 2011.
We must remember about our modern India. In Katju's opinion, two people -Emperor Akbar and  and former prime ministerPundit  Jawahar Lal Nehru can be said the creators of present day modern India..
Emperor Akbar has no parallel in the world as ruler of honesty and integrity. In the 16th century Akbar had proclaimed the doctrine of Suleh-ekul, which means "universal tolerance of all religion." At that time there were upheavals in Europe. Exuropeans were massacring each other in the name of religion, Catholics massacring Protestants, Proteststants massacring Catholics and both massacring Jews. Similarly In India, religious passions were inflamed after partition in 1947 and people of both Hindu and Muslim communities behaved like animals. Both of them were butchering each other. Pakistan had declared itself an Islamic state. We can imagine tremendous pressure on the then prime minister Pundit Jawaghar Lal Nehru  at that time to declare India as Hindu state! But Pundit Nehru kept cool and declared that India will not be a Hindu state but  will be secular state and provided such Constitution to India! Katju has further commented, " For this reason, we are relatively more stability as compared to our neighbouring countries.
More over, initially Muslim invaders including Mahmud Ghazani, had demolished a lot of temples including Somanath temple. But their descendants, who were Muslim rulers in different parts of India, did not disturb the secular equilibrium of India. In many cases, historically We find that they used to give grants for upkeep and maintenance of temples. They celebrated Holi and Diwali festivals together. One example, Babar was  an invader but Akbar was not invader; he was born in India and was very much an Indian. These descendants of the invaders,  ruled India,, having population of 80 to 90 percent Hindus. If they continued in demolishing temples, there would have been turmoil and in their interest, they fostered communal harmony; they gave grants to temples, they celebrated Hindu festivals. another example" Nabab of  Awadh  used to organise  Ramlila and celebrate Holi and Diwali. Tipu Sultan used to give annual grants to 156 temples, his prime minister was a Hindu called Purnaiya and his commander-in-chief was a Hindu, called Krishna Rao. Tipu Sultan sent 30 respectful letters with grants to the Shankaracharya of Sringeri."
Surprisingly British had always played games to divide Muslim and Hindu- In history of that time, you will find mention of communal tinges in the society between Hindu and Muslim but will not find communal harmony, spread by Muslim rulers in the form of "land grants for building Hindu temples, celebrated and organised Hindu festivals etc".
Our history books, influenced by Britishers, have depicted many nasty stories of communal disharmony! One instance is about a book written by Professor of Sanskrit in Calcutta university Harprasad Shastri, in which, 'it was mentioned that Tipu sultan told 3000 Brahimins to covert to Islam or otherwise they would be killed and those 3000 Brahmins committed suicide rather become Muslims. On reading this, Professor of History in Allahabad university Prof Pandey  said that when he asked Prof Shastri about the source of such write up, Prof Shastri replied that that the source of information was the Mysore Gazetteer. again Prof Pandey wrote to Prof of history in the Mysore University Srikant-Prof Srikant wrote back to Prof Pandey that this was totally false-there is no such mention in the Mysore Gazetteer; rather correct version was just reverse namely the  Tipu Sultan used to give annual grants to 156 temples, he used to send grants to the Shankracharya Of Sringeri."
Justice Katju further spoke in his lecture, " It is time we rewrite our history books and show that in fact upto 1857 there was no communal problem at all in India. A composite culture had been developing in India. Hindus used to participate in Eid and Muharram celebrations and Muslims used to participate in Holi , Diwali etc festivals. There were some difference no doubt, but they were becoming narrower."
He further said, " In 1857, the great mutiny took place. Hindus and Muslims jointly fought against the British. After suppressing mutiny it was decided by the British rulers that that the only way to control country was to divide and rule. In other words, Hindu and Muslims  must be made to fight each other. Communal riots started in 1857. English collector would secretly call Hindu pundits and give him money to speak against Muslims and similarly he would secretly call the Maulvi and give him some Maulvi to speak against Hindu. A racket was started in this way and and this resulted ultimately into partition in 1947."
After we achieved part independence, there were many Hindu-Muslim riots were reported and it started from Ranchi and Jamshedpur in joint Bihar. There after, many more were reported in the country, killings of thousands of people exact figure of killings in Hindu-Muslim riots since independence have been carried out in the Outlook India recently. Worse communal carnage was reported in Gujarat and the chief minster oif Gujarat Narendra Modi was allegedly main conspirators in eliminating Muslims from Gujarat. Many killings of Muslims in riots were reported from Gujarat under the leadership of Narendra Bhai Modi. Demolition of Babari Masjid in Ayodhaya by Hinduvata forces, particularly Bharatiya Janata Party, led by Lal Knrishna Advani has become another blot on the secular fabric of India!
Justice Katju has cautioned Indians and said, " India is passing through transitional phase from feudal agriculture society to to an modern industrial society. In my opinion the duty of all patriotic people is to help in shortening this transition period, in reducing this pain.....there is going to be turmoil in this period since the vested interest of old feudal order will not give up their vested interests without a fierce struggle-------we must combat caste ism, communal ism and superstitions in order to get over the transition period faster and with less pain."
Sources:BOOKS: History in the Service of Imperialism,; Mysore Gazetteer; Speech of Prof B N Pandey in Upper House of Parliament in 1977;Articles on website kgfindia.com like Kalidas Ghalib Academy for Mutual U;understandings,Great Injustice to Urdu in India, Sanskrit as a Language of Science; An article in The Frontline fortnightly based on the speech delivered by Justice Markandey Katju to non-resident Indians in California in June 2011.

Sunday, 18 March 2012


In my earlier blog, I have reasoned in detail  importance of regional parties in coalition government in India at a time when both national parties-Congress and Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) waning its  influence and importance in the country's political scenario!
Communism has their origin lies before the independence of the Country. Communists had  initially split from the  Indian National Congress and subsequently from a pressure group within the Congress-Congress Socialist Party(CSP). Many books have been written on the origin of Communism in India (Whilch I will name later on), mainly on the communists' split with the Congress Socialist Party; the CPI 's stand on the second world war; the second party congress in 1948; evolution of tactical line, the leaders' historic meeting with Joseph Stalin in Moscow; the Telengna struggle and the Andhra Thesis. Eminent writer A G Noorani has threw light on communism and communists . In my view, communist plays important role in this coalition era in the country!
On the basis of an interview with towering communist leader of India , Jyoti Basu on behalf of NMMLby , Shikha Mukherjee and Usha Prasad on December 18,2001 on some in depth facts about communism and its role in formation of coalition governments at the centre and states have come to light. Apart from speaking about lack of proper policy with regards to giving autonomy and more powers to the Kashmiris, ways to put down militancy and solution of problems politically etc, Jyoti Basu had said to the interviewers, "It was not just once that he was invited to become prime minister. The full accounts bear quotations in extenso. You see, when the United Front was there, we got a majority and the Congress said that it would support us so as to keep the BJP at bay.  So we got together, but who would be the prime minister? VPSingh would be the best person, but he was ill. So they all, 12 parties, said: you must be the prime minister.Why did they say it? It was not because I am God's son, but because, as you said, I have got experiences of running a United Front government and the left Front government. That is why they thought that our party should join the 12-parties government, and I should become prime minister."
Basu had further said, "Then what happened was that because before the elections, we had no common programme although we were fighting together against the Congress. we said in the election meetings-I had spoken in many election meetings: We should help to form government but we will not be part of it(That had been our View). Now since you are requesting 12 parties, including CPI, whose representative Indrajit Gupta became the home minister, we have to call a meeting of the central committee of the CPI-M. That is the way we function; it is democratic functioning. So we called a meeting of of the central committee on their request:: This new situation  has arisen and so we have to have a programme that they want us to enter the government and I become the prime minister. In voting there was division. I think by 8 or 10 votes we lost-our general secretary  and I were in the minority. We thought politically it would be excellent thing and the right thing to do so to join this government and head it, try to lead it. Even though it may be for few months, it would be politically advantageous. But the majority thought otherwise that it would be a great risk for us to join with these people but we said: Already we had worked out common minimum programme for West Bengal United Front government. Now we will have common minimum programme at the centre. As people saw in West Bengal united Front government, similarly, on an all India scale it will help our party, it will help the left forces. Other said: nothing can be done with leading the government but we can support 12 of them. Some of them , that is true also, were very much against our policies like the then Finance minister, he was very much against our policy but our argument was: In the centre, the prime minister is unlike what we have in West Bengal, in Kerala. In the centre the prime minister wields a lot of influences and we can for the time being influence them***********The people would have new experience,. Within these limitations so many things could be done. Then if we are thrown out we shall leave a new experience for the people cannot last for five years. The Congress is supporting us. When they will withdraw support, people will judge who is to blame. If  it is breaks up, then we could leave some thing behind for the people***** but my argument was not accepted by the majority. Again a second meeting was called. This time also we failed. Among the comrades of West Bengal also there are also division******".
"When 11 non-communist parties, VPSingh and others asked the CPI(M)-the CPI had decided to join the government-to join the government will with me as prime minister, it would be correct step. In parliamentary democracy, never in the world has a such situation arisen. Again I say this is a historic blunder. Historic, why, because such opportunity does not come, history does not present you with such opportunities. But anyway that was that..........."
AS regards BJP coalition  working, Basu had said, " all these state parties and groups want to become ministers. We cannot form such coalition. According to us, if there is not  minimum understanding sincerely pursued , we should not have a government, but the BJP does not believe in any principles or politics, it wants to rule and Hinduvata and all this business are there; they are guided by the RSS (Rashtriya Swayasevak Sangh) and the VHP (Vishwa Hindu Parishad),, " Basu added and cited several examples when he was requested by Congress including Arjun Singh, Pranaba Mukherjee and  Samajwadi leaders like Chandra Shekhar and the then Samajwadi Yashwant Sinha , now in BJP, Mulayam singh Yadav had requested me to become prime minister!
Now I will shift on history of Communist movement in India. To begin with I must refer towering EMS Namboodirpad and his interview to Hari Prasad Sharma. EMS had said, "Actually I first came in touch with the communist groups in Andhra about February 1935 when M RMasani and myself were returning from Nagpur where a meeting of the national executive of Congress Socialist Party(CSP) was being held. We both went to Guntur to address a meeting of the ( CSP). There there was a group of communists; they were putting questions to Masani and he was answering them. Persons , who were asking questions on behalf of e M Basavapunniah of Communist Party. I was not knowing them and had no interactions with them. The actual  personal contact that I had with communist with South India or with the communists anywhere in India was some time in October 1935 and that was at Madras with P Sundarayya.. Again the opportunity was meeting of Indian National Congress in Madras in which I had gone there to participate as Congress delegate.There a radical conference was being held, a forum in which all the radical groups like the Royists, the CPI, the CSP and unattached individuals and trade unions had been participating. The meeting was attended by Krishna Pillai and myself. One of the delegates was also P Sundarayya. and I met him and that the first real discussions held between authorised  representatives of the Communist Party and us in 1935."
EMS had further said to interviewer, " a nucleus of Communist Party was formed in Andhra. From there my journey to communist party began. There after I met Jayaprakash Narayan, actively involved in CSP and told him that I was keeping contacts with communists. CSP led by JP wanted to unite all revolutionary forces including the communists. From there I spread the network of communist party in Kerala and other parts of the country.: EMS added.
P Sundaarayya was legend in his own life time in Telengana. He had told HDSharma in his  interview, " JP and Acharya Narendra Dev and certain other sections were definitely for a united movement though they did not want this full-fledged communist approach. One accusation against us that the communists will always follow the instruction they got from the communist international or what they call the Soviet leadership. Majority was with JP, naturally, did not accept some of the issues that were raised and knowing that we could not get through we also did not insist too much on it.Congress socialism was contradictory in words and would pave way to fascism," he added and continued for ultra communist movement in Telengana region of Andhra.
Another senior Communist leader Basavapunniah told his interviewer Sharma about the Telengana revolt in detail. After war in 1945, this movement in Nizam's areas had taken a very militant form. When we had to fight against Nizam, his Razakars, his army, his police and all that, then we were compelled to go far guerrilla warfare, armed warfare and with all these ideas we had go through Mao's theory of partisan welfare, guerrilla warfare and peasant warfare etc.. The Andhra unit took the lead in this respect because it went into action first, a militant form of struggle and faced police bullets, repression by armies of theNizam and all that.. The second phase of revolution was after the Indian government had come in. The alternative that had posed before us was either to abandon the whole struggle and leave the land and leave the peasantry to its fate or to organise the peasantry and resist and demand that these lands must be with us and not allow landlords to reoccupy the land. The Government of India was trying to suppress it with arms. We decided to that we must resist the maximum. So this resistance went for on for three years. Whereas Sardar Patel was thinking that in 30 days everything will be finished but it took three years. Meanwhile Sardar had finished himself but the movement it was not finished."
In between Communist party faced many splits in its rank and file! But the communism have not died down.. Of all communist leaders SA Dngeh proved a villain of the piece in weakening the communism in India. In 1920s Dange, of fascinating character man, a brilliant pamphleteer, orator and a supple tactician had apologised to the British government and released from Sitapur jail where he was serving four-year-sentence in Kanpur conspiracy case, eminent columnist Noorani has said..
Ultimately united Communist party split and CPI(M) and CPI remained on  in existence as well as communist , having hard lines design, also split and continuing in various factions like CPI-ML , many groups, CPI (Maoists) etc. But these communist parties have their regional standings and winning elections of both Lok Sabha and state assemblies in the country and raising the voices of poor against exploitations

SOURCE:Essays of AGNoorani; in three parts in Fortnightly  English  FRontline, Extracts from interviews with senior leaders of the Communist movement conducted on behalf of the Nehru Memorial Museum and Library,, The Current, a Bombay tabloid  of March 07,1964.; Statements of  veteran communist and ablest pamphleteers of the country  PCJoshi; EMS's book How I become a communist, Chinta Publication, 1976; Reminiscences of an Indian Communist, National Book Centre, 1987 AKGopalan's book- In the Cause of the People: Reminiscences, Orient Longsman-1973; Muzaffar Alis's Myself and the Communist Party of India 1920-1929, National Book agency , Calcutta-1970;; P Sundarayya's Telengan Peoples' struggle and its lesson, published by Desraj Chadha on behalf of Communist Party of India -Marxist; NKKrishanan's Testament of Faith......Memoirs of a communist, New Delhi Publishing House-1990; ; Mohit Sen's a traveller and the Road: The journey of Indian Communist, Rupa and Company, 2003>.

Wednesday, 14 March 2012


Some Time strange political developments take place in India. Bihar, Bengal , Orrisa were part and parcels after Buxar battle in 1764 and the British's East  India Company had created Presidency of Bengal , merging these three regions in one part. Thereafter , during British Raj, the Raj  separated Bengal and created Bihar and Orrisa a separate state in 1912. Again in 1935, after creation of  India Act, enacted by British Parliament, Orrisa was separated from Bihar and Bihar became new state! Orrisa was also born separately.Subsequently many developments had  taken place and India got independence in 1947 and we got a New Constitution of Independent India.
Notably, some portion of Bihar like Purulia areas of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal under. the recommendations of the State Reorganisation Commission. Much hue and cry were raised over the transfer of parts and districts of Bihar to West Bengal..Matter took serious turn with animosity between the people of Bihar and West Bengal. Amid sentimental atmosphere, the Indian National Congress had approved a resolution merging Bihar and West Bengal in its Anmritsar session. The then chief Ministers Dr Sri Krishna Singh (Bihar) and Dr Bidhan Chandra Roy had signed on an agreement for merger of Bihar and West Bengal on January 23, 1956 and  for carrying the resolutions of merger in their respective Legislatures.Remarkably, Dr Sri Krishna Sinha held a press conference in Delhi and announced to utter surprise of the people that by May 1956, a bill will be introduced in the Parliament to formalise the merger of Bihar and West Bengal. Later on Orrisa will also be merged with the merged state of West Bengal and Bihar!
Amid politically surcharged atmosphere during those days. the then Governor of Bihar Dr R R Diwakar, while addressing the joint session of Bihar Legislature on January 31, 1956, informed the legislators the desire of the SKSinha government to bring a resolution in both the houses of  the Legislature for merging both Bihar and West Bengal into single state.While narrating the sequences of events in the wake of bifurcating some areas including Purulia from Bihar and merge with West Bengal, Dr Diwakar had told the joint session" lack of far sightedness, gravity of political situation, such resolution of merger of two states would have rarely come out in this Legislature:.He cautioned the Legislature about far reaching political developments in the wake of coming up such resolution of merger of these two states: the merger could not be easy; it should be very cautiously think over and opinion of people should also be sought over such ticklish issue.--------such decision must not be taken in casual manner----------approach for such discussion must not be hatred and competitiveness but harmony and cooperation of the people of both the states."
Both the houses of Bihar Legislature discussed in detail on the Thanks Motion to Joint address of the Governor over the issue from February 01 , 1956 to February 06, 1956 intensively and passed the motion of Thanks.
Even after, such subtle approach of  Dr Diwakar and members of both the houses of the Bihar Legislature over merger of Bihar and West Bengal, both the chief ministers Dr S K sinha (Bihar) and Bidhanchandra Roy (West Bengal) brought the merger resolution in their respective Legislature. Dr S K SInha put formal resolution to merge Bihar with West Bengal on February 24, 1956 in the Bihar Legislature. After intensive discussions over merger issue for   two days, Bihar Legislature passed the resolution for merger of Bihar-Bengal in single state on February 25, 1956 by 156 votes in favour and 25, opposing the motion! One of the strangest aspects of the Bihar Legislature was that had it approved the resolution in the interest of people of Bihar? And history wants reply of this question! Such resolution was passed in West Bengal Legislature also between the same time. But Bidhan Chandra Roy withdrew the resolution of merger  on March 13, 1956. But clash of interest over territory of Bihar did not end there!
According to detailed compilation of records of the Legislature proceedings of those days , anchored from the Legislative achieves , the then Chairman of the Bihar Legislative Council Prof Jabir Hussain;, who edited the proceedings of the houses and other reports,kept in gathering dust in the Legislative council secretariat, has quoted at least two vital quotable quotes. on September 15, 1998; Prof Hussain, known for his scholarship, had quoted the then Pioneer (now defunct),over the issue  kept in the secretariat having gathering dust ! The Pioneer, which had written this topics when movement of separating Bihar from Bengal was at its zenith, had said,"Behar has always been Behar., Bengal Bengal. The people and the nobles of Behar are justly proud of their country and will doubtless rejoice to see it severed from a common rule with Bengal, with which in climate, in crops, in  manners and morals, it has nothing in common."
Before I continue on another such quotable quotes, edited  by Prof Hussain of Jonh Malchom, based on Max Muller, I  strongly feel to refer most important aspects of merger resolution of Bihar and  West Bengal  and subsequent developments. Amid all these fast changing political developments over the issue, there was a great political personality. His name was Jay Prakash Narayan, who strongly protested the merger of Bihar and West Bengal. In Delhi Jay Prakash Narayan met the them Prime Minister Pundit Jawahar Lal Nehru and spoke to him expressing his strong protest and anguish and dismay of the people of Bihar over merger of Bihar with West Bengal
In another records in the Legislative Council, according to Prof Hussain, Sir John Malchom, who   had based his statement to  Max Muller on Bihar, had said, "-------but from the moment you enter the districts of Behar, the inhabitants are a race of men, generally speaking, not more distinguished by their lofty stature and noble frame than they are for some of the finest qualities of the mind. They are brave, generous, humane and their truth is as remarkable as their courage."
It will be proper to refer at least as passing references of debate on Motion of Thanks on Governor address to the joint session and also on the resolution of Dr S K Snha to merge Bihar with West Bengal .the Debate was hotly discussed in the Legislature. To begin with, a legislator, Shree Nayan Jee had moved amendment over the references of merger of Bihar and West Bengal in the governor's address and said, " --------but deeply regret the reference to the proposal of merger of the two states of Bihar and West Bengal as the proposal if given effect to is bound to affect adversely both the states and unity of the country." Another interesting speech of another legislator in the council Shri Abdul Hayat Chand, who while expressing his dismay  over the issue, had said "na tarapne ki ijajajt hai na fariyad ki hai; ghut kar mar jaun yah marji mere saiyad ki hai." Chand , while criticising Dr S K Sinha had said, "-----and lastly regret that Governor's address fails to bring in its true light the highly authoritarian and partisan and manner in which the chief minister has sought to wipe out the very existence of Bihar from the political map of the country."Similar interesting views had been expressed in the proceedings over merger of Bihar and West Bengal.
Noted legislators of those period like Ram Charitra Sinha, Jamuna Prasad Sinha, Ignesh Kujur, Rana Shivlakhpati Singh, Yogendra Ghosh, Basawan Sinha, Binodanand Jha etc  had raised many aspects over mereger of both the states, by points of order, amendments and other legislative modes for stalling the resolution.However the resolution was okayed by majority votes.
Now when I reminiscence the past, I find the quality of leadership in India was not  so perfect as we used to think about statures of political leaders of during during those days. With the withdrawal of the resolution by Dr Bidhan Chandra Roy, the matter ended and merger plan of the then Congress party did not succeed!

Wednesday, 7 March 2012


In 1966 Dr Ram Manohar Lohia, while lambasting Congress Party for creating regional imbalances and exploitation of poor as well as rampant price rise in India, had commented in a public speech in l historic and sprawling Gandhi Maidan in Patna  that in years to come democratic process in India will be strengthened with a host of regional parties, having secular and socialist credentials rooting in the election arena in the process of capturing power from national parties like Congress in states and at the centre. By that time many socialist thinking politicians, who were part and parcels of the Congress, had left Congress and started launching  regional parties of socialist  orientation under the present democratic structures in India. In the process , the present Hindu party-the Bharatiya Janata Party, which was originally Jan Sangh and had considerable support in the country, had also faced the tune of revolt.From Jan Sangh, number of leaders also resigned and had joined conservative and bourgeoisie party like Swatntra Party and many other outfits, having communal credentials.
 Churning process in democratic system in India , which had started after independence of the country in  1947, continued. As regards united left party, number of communist leaders, who had formed the communist party, could not go together and splits after splits in Communist party,  made the left forces weaker. But in few states like Kerala and West Bengal, the communist forces grew gradually.Rule of left front government led by CPI(M) stalwarts Jyoti Basu and later by CPI(M) leader Buddhdeo Bhattacharya continued for over 30 years in West Bengal and Left parties continues to be strong o in Kerala in extreme south India More progressive communist leaders, separated from mainstream communist party, had started revolution in Telegana region of Andhra Pradesh and many other states, who were later termed Naxalites and now they are called mainly Maoists.Some of them differ with the present democratic forces and wanted direct revolution against  feudal forces to revenge exploitation of poor, dalits, tribal etc. Influences of Naxalites or Maoists have also to some extend lessened exploitation of poor in Naxalite-influenced parts of the country and the union government and respective state governments have started launching progressive measures in neglected areas.
The prophecy of Dr Ram Manohar Lohia came true. Even before his such statement, for the first time, CPI, having no national status so far because of differences of opinion overt Marxism and Leninism among socialists and communists, a first non-Congress government of Communist Party of India got victory in the Assembly elections of Kerala during the premiership of Pundit Jawahar Lal Nehru in 1950s. First Communist government led by E M S Namboodaripad was installed in 1950s. But in the middle of 1960s, number of state governments were formed by non-congress parties. Coalition arrangements of smaller regional parties remained key factors in installing non-congress governments in various states including Bihar, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat etc.In this game because of numerical lesser strength of the so called Jan Sangh , now Bharatiya Janata Party, had also joined the anti-congress forces.
More over in many states , particularly in Bihar, the then Jan Sangh remained coalition partners and its legislators were ministers with communist and other socialist parties. Currently in new avatar-BJP is coalition partners in governments in Bihar and Punjab. Likewise, Congress being national party , is also coalition partners in West Bengal government led by Mamta Baneerjee. Congress also remained coalition partners in Rabari-Laloo government in Bihar.Now taking into polarisation of Hindu votes, the Bharatiya Janata Party also become national party and joined the tags of Congress in such term.
Strengthening  of coalition era proved successful when under the leadership of Lok Nayak Jay Prakash Narayan all non-congress  parties except Communist parties merged into a single Party -Janata Party- and succeeded in defeating the Congress led by Indira Gandhi after much-maligned emergency in the country. Morarjee Desai was installed prime minister, first -ever non-congress government in Delhi.
Thereafter, number of coalition governments have survived including the present one -UPA government led by Manmohan Singh in Delhi. Some of the government remained short-lived at the centre but democratic system continued as usual!Congress leadership led by Sonia Gandhi of Nehru clan , who were dithering over joining coalition politics, had to realise the truth and only after that Congress could get some strength and won maximum seats and formed UPA government under the leadership of Manmohan Singh twice.
In between national politics had seen many twists and turns! Demolition of Babari Masjid in course of Somnath to Ayodhya rathyatra of the BJP leader Lal Krishna Advani also changed the political scenario of the country mainly because of consolidation of Hindu votes.But the influence of BJP among masses had started also declining in view of recent assembly elections results.The BJP is gradually losing its grip over masses and except Karnataka in south India, it continues to be the party of Hindi heartland and cow belts.Although as the voting pattern in entire country shows, the Congress continues to be national party as the party gets votes in each and every parts of the country, but its number of seats in Lok Sabha , Rajya Sabha as well as state assemblies are  declining sharply, posing a big question mark whether the BJP and Congress will remain national parties!
During all these years of coalition era, regional parties had trumped. These regional parties had important says in forming governments at the centre and different states.In coalition politics, masses have to great extend benefited and fruits of developments have spread in states also. It was  moribund during one party rule of Congress in successive years because of lack-lustre regional imbalances, created by it in the country. Says of states have gradually pushed the centre and its Planning commission to flow of funds for equal development of the states. It was because of the pressure of coalition partners, dynamic and progressive programmes like quadrilateral communication network in the country during Atal Behari Vajpayee regime and right to information Act, employment guarantee schemes, right to education etc by UPA government of Manmohan Singh  had been implemented on the basis of common minimum programmes of both the coalition governments at the centre as well as  by different state governments, having coalition arrangements
Notably, Congress and BJP should also accept the reality of facts and find path of coalition politics, which is rather strengthening the democracy and also fruits of developments are reaching to the grass-root level. Unity and integrity of the country as well as politics of development not the path of confrontation should be motto of these so called national parties. The days of single party rule  at national and states level are gone. Many regional leaders have emerged and they appear capable to handle the affairs of the country under democratic process. It also appears the liking of Indian electorate in the country!
The latest results of assembly elections in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Goa, had again proved that national parties -Congress and BJP- cannot control the country single-handedly. Although in some cases, it was a fractured verdict, theory of consensuses could form the government in Uttarakhand specially

Monday, 5 March 2012


Much hype is being created over the Bihar and its 100th years anniversary by the present government led by the chief minister Nitish Kumar in next one week! People of Bihar and the Nitish government first must know the exactly the real birth day of Bihsar!
The  British East India Company, which was instrumental in slaving the entire India in the hands of  Great Britain, was first to get Diwani right (collection of revenue and governance) after the battle of Buxar in 1764 for "Bihar, Bengal and Orissa" Much ups and downs were witnessed since then. The Great Britain had taken the India under its control! During the British India period, the Great Britain  had created "Presidency of Bengal(PoB)". And Bihar and, Orissa had become part of the PoB  after the East India Company handed over the governance of slavery of India to Great Britain.Bihar was ruled by PoB from Calcutta now Kolkata.
Again, the Great Britain  separated Bihar and Orissa from Bengal in 1912 and  made Bihar and Orissa a joint and separate province! Whole Bengal including present Bangla Desh was made a separate province under British Raj And finally Province of Bihar came into existence in 1935 under Government of India Act,1935, of British Raj. And Orissa became a separate state..After separation from Bengal, Bihar and Orissa was government from Patna, having headquarters of top civil servants of British Raj as well as Council (Legislative wing) here in Patna..In my opinion now it is people to decide when Bihar was born in 1764 or 1912 or 1935!
Before deliberating the other aspects of Bihar before and after independence , I feel it is necessary to bring the people to down the memory lanes about importance of Bihar and its people right from ancient India to advanced India. Bihar has wonderful history. During ancient time, Bihar was centre of learning since 5th and 8th century. The name of Bihar was probably derived from Sanskrit and Pali word as well as of Devanagari scripts. Bihar means in Hindi and Sanskrit "abode". It may be abode of Buddhists monks! Great and famed rulers like Chandragupta  Maurya, Ashoka, Samundragupta, Vikaramaditya etc remained finest rulers of the entire country from Bihar and Pataliputra.or Patna.As per historical records, Bihar was important place of power, culture, education in the last one thousand years. Spiritualism was its core. Sanskrit scholars like Panini had  given new doimension to our culture , civilisation, language and literature. Gautam Buddha got enlightenment in Boddh-Gaya and spread the message of compassion and brotherhood brotherhood in the entire world. Apart from many others, the last and tenth Guru of Sikhism Guru Govind Singh was born here in Patna city areas. Once upon a time, the ancient Nalanda university had attracted students of far-lung  countries including China, Japan, Thailand,  Indonesia, even some European countries.Since it was destroyed by despotic ruler Bahkhtiyar Khilji, who committeed massacxre In Bihar Shariff and ruined the ancient Nalanda university!
About wonder of Bihar and about Bihar , I must quote one quotable quotes of A L Basham in his book-The Wonder That Was INDIA-," "The age in which true history appeared in India was one of the great intellectual and spiritual ferment. Mystics and  shophisists of all kinds roamed through the Ganges valley, all advocating some form of metal discipline and asceticism as a mean to m salvation, but the age of Buddha, when many of the best minds were abandoning their homes and profession for a life a sceticism, was also a time of advance in commerce and politics. It produced not only philosophers as ascetics but also merchant prince and Men of action---------."
Although Dr S K Sinha was first chief minister under the British  India Act, 1935, he continued even after the India achieved independence in 1947 till his death in 1960. Dr Sngh's regime notwithstanding considered one of best governed states in the country, it was he who under his golden regime brought some tangible things like Heavy Engineering Corporation (HEC), Bokaro steel, IOC oil refinerry in Barauni,Rajendra bridge on Ganga in Mokemah, many other heavy and power  industries in united Bihar before its bifurcation  and dividing  Bihar and creating Jharkhand about ten years back . One glaring mistake Dr S K Sinha committeed  that was not constructing high dams on rivers originating from Nepal although under an treaty with Nepal during British Raj, a sum of Rs 40 crores were sent to India by Great Britain government for final construction of the dams on rivers after independence. Reluctantly the then prime minister Jawahar Lal Nehru had to hand over the sum to Punjab for constructing high dams on Bhakhara Nangal. And today Punjab is feeding the entire country because of construction of high dams and irrigation network in that state as well as industrial hubs in that state.
Alas  after his death , practically a lull was created in Bihar and the state started deteriorating.
Another remarkable features were achieved in Bihar during the regime of Krishna Ballabh Sahay, Kedar Pandey, Karpoori Thakur and Bhagwat Jha Azad.. While Sahay to some  extend implemented land reform measures and given land to landless for basgit and agriculture after enacting law to take over surplus lands from the then rajas , maharajas, landlords  and big land holders, Kedar Pandey streamlined the higher eduction in the state to great extend and during his regime, universities in the state started funtioning well and marvelously.
 Karpoor Thakur, was considered messiah of poor and imlemented reservation for dalits and , backwards, who were deprived off of jobs and education and exxploited by higher caste people in the state. Last but not the least Bhagwat Jha Azad , during his short tenure, started war against corruption in the state for the first time substantially. It was during his regime big politicians   particularly from cooperative sectors and big officials were booked on corruption charges in the state, which had brought tagible results later on .
In between successive chief ministers of the state proved ineffective, and the Bihar started going down to the drains and its backwardness aggaravated miserably.
 I do not want to name any other chief ministers, who had brought all the ills for  Bihar during their respective tenures. One chief minister institutionalised corruption in the state during his rule in 1980s. Another one and his family member, who also become chief minister, shiphonned off over Rs 850 crore from state treasury. Many criminal cases are pending against him.
Situation started down hill turn from 1980s. Corruption has adversely affected governance in the state and now the situation has reached to such height during Nitish Kumar regime that poor continued to be neglected and corruption has percolated  right from state headquarters to panchayat level in the state. Since 1980s, specially in  during Laloo-Rabari regime to Nitish Kumar rule from late 1990s to 2000s corruption and deterioration in law and order situation  have become  worse. Some definite improvement in law and order and development sectors had taken place in the beginning of  Nitish rule, but common masses are passing through agonising moments.
 Nitish failed to implement much-publicised  land reform measures despite his promises and reports of Bandopadhaya committee.Before coming to power Nitish had announced implementation of land reform measures but under the pressure of big land holders and BJP leaders, he dithered to implement the measures leaving  the lands in the hands of holders and depriving the landless their right of lands Development funds, specially central schemes , are not percolating to rural poor.. Government officials and ruling class politicians comprising JD(U) and BJP have created havoc with peoples' life. Big announcement of Nitish government have become order of the day.Curb on freedom of press in the form of undeclared censorship have posed a big question mark over freedom of expression.Authoritarian attitude of Nitish Kumar and bureacratic cobweb remind the people of how Hitler in the garb of democracy had imposed the dictatorship in Germany!
Only hope appears on youths of Bihar. Bihar has 58 percent youths below 25 years of age. Such data of youths is highest in comparision to other states.. As regards sign of development, Bihar is agriculture based state. Its soils has highest fertility . Rural masses are trying their best to produce maximum from their lands.One more thing is remarkable factor  in Bihar and its residents. They are definitely developing but not at the cost of assistance and help "rahmo-karam" of government of Nitish Kumar but of their own by dint of hard labour.
Now youths of Bihar could give a new road of development  overthrowing present decadent politicians, who are exploiting the people in the name of shining slogans o in Bihar. Lot of youths are also getting specialised education in other parts of the country. Many Biharis are working in other states and sending money to their kiths and kins here. And development is taking shape!